Breeding quails is a very popular activity for summer residents. Some breeds are grown for nutritious meats, others for eggs. Among the famous breeds stands out Estonian quail.
Its uniqueness is due to the ability to get both products. Estonians gain weight well and have a high egg production rate. Estonian breed quails were bred by crossing three quality breeds:
- English whites;
The first two breeds of egg, the Pharaoh is grown as meat. The main characteristics that were used for crossing these breeds were the egg-laying period, the quail's lifespan and the level of survival in various conditions. The official approval of the breed, bred by breeders, occurred in 1989 in Estonia. The main advantages of Estonian quail should be highlighted:
- Ease of care. The cultivation of Estonians is possible even for novice farmers. They do not require much experience and knowledge.
- High vitality. The bred breed combines the best qualities of its predecessors.
- Fast growth. A month later, the chicks reach the "adult" mass.
- Short incubation period. It lasts only 17 days, which is beneficial for the mass cultivation of Estonians.
- High survival rate. Chicks Estonian quail give 95% survival rate.
- Excellent egg production. After 40 days, the females lay eggs. In the first year of life, one female is able to produce 3 kg of eggs, and the average annual egg production ranges from 170 to 285 eggs.
How to grow a bird without problems
The bird has signs of its ancestors, especially in color.
The color of Estonian quails is expressed in yellow-brown tones with stripes of bright brown color. Cheeks and mandibles are also brown, but goiter is slightly lighter. On the head are three stripes in light yellow tones. The same bright stripes are located on the wing feathers. The females are slightly lighter colored, so many rate their color as pripylenny. Juveniles are much lighter than adult quails.
To get the maximum effect from the bird, it is necessary to provide it with proper maintenance and competent care. Although the breeding of "Estonians" does not require much effort, you need to know what you need to pay attention to?
The bird is placed in cages whose height is not more than 20 cm. In order to correctly calculate the area of the cage, they proceed from the recommended 2 square meters. m per quail. If you have a little space for placing cells, you can put one above the other. Quails have extraordinary activity. In case of danger - jump up high enough. Therefore, in order to prevent possible injury to birds, a tissue net is taken for the upper part of the cells.
Cells are placed in a dry room with good ventilation.Important! Make sure that there are no drafts that are harmful to Estonian quail and reduce their egg production.
Temperature range is maintained in the range from 20 ° C to 22 ° C. Optimum humidity for a bird - 65%.
The composition depends on the purpose for which Estonian quails are raised. Meat designation requires a special feed with a high content of protein and timely replacement of water in drinking bowls.
What are the rules for caring for quail Estonian
- Feeding birds For adults, two or three meals a day is enough. Time is kept constant. Place the drinkers behind the feeders, and the feeders in front. The feeders are attached outside the cage. When a large number of birds use automatic, in which food is fed from a common bunker. The diet of Estonian quail consists of a compound feed with protein, crushed grain, finely chopped greens and egg feed. Estonian quails eat vegetables well (beets, carrots), apples, and Maybirds. It is recommended to include meat, boiled liver and cottage cheese in the menu weekly.
- Cell cleaning. Pallets are washed regularly. In order to thoroughly clean, Estonian quails are moved to another place for this time. Wash pallets spend soapy water with a full drying.
- Lighting. A light day is provided for 16 hours. The excess of this indicator leads to an increase in the aggressiveness of the bird.
At this time, the birds provide a comfortable temperature and average humidity. Ventilation openings are recommended to close and add light to the room. It is good to use infrared lamps, which will additionally heat the house.
How to distinguish the female from the male
Sexual identity can be determined by secondary characteristics - the color and structure of the body. Already at one month old, the plumage on the chest of quails is different. Males have monochromatic plumage of ocher-yellow or red color without inclusions. The beak and the entire head of the male look more massively in relation to the body than in females. Females are elegant and proportionate in their structure. The color of feathering on the breast of females is more oiled, with dark patches.
Birds try to recognize the sex by the presence of a secretory gland in males near the cloaca. To do this, the bird is taken in hand and turned upside down. At the base of the tail is a foul place. In females, it has no bulges and bumps. The male above the cloaca is a secretory gland, the pressure on which leads to the release of white secretion. This method is suitable for adult birds, quail young still do not have a developed secretory gland, which makes it impossible to determine the sex in this way.
Experienced farmers recommend growing males and females separately from each other. And, at the same time, in the cells to equip sections for several individuals.
Purchase Estonian quail is not problematic.
Breed popular and widespread, so it will be easy to grow birds. After all, gardeners and farmers eagerly share their experience in growing Estonian quails.